Q4. When publishing changes, so does society. Investigate and compare the impact of two publication technologies, one pre-1900 and one post-2000, on a specific aspect of society (e.g. education, politics, creative industries, science, entertainment, social relationships).
As modes of publishing change, so does society. However, as society develops, so do these modes of publishing to keep up with the constantly evolving world around them. The printing press, a pre-1900 publication technology, and digital tablet devices, such as the Apple Ipad, post-2000 publication technologies, have had a significant positive impact on education. Both these revolutionary technologies, are comparable in terms of their positive impact on education, as they were both ahead of their time, altering the concept of reading and enhancing the audience’s learning experience. The difference in these technologies on their impact on education is that the printing press published printed books, where digital tablet devices further enhanced our educational reading experience through the ability to add video, images, and interactive links, which was not possible with traditional books.
The printing press, had a revolutionary impact on literacy during its time, transforming educational practices. Brunning states the significant impact of the printing press on society in that it is; “…comparable to the impact of the information revolution” (Brunning,2012,pg.294). As society was developing, new forms of publishing was needed to better education, “At the beginning of the 19th century, in order to satisfy the new needs for information and education, more books, administrative publications, and soon, newspapers were required, and consequently more paper to be produced” (Febvre & Martin,1997,pg.44). The printing press was very efficient, as it had consistent spelling and grammar, which greatly influenced reading and writing skills, “…this consistency enhanced the overall reading experience” (Arthur,2004). The printing press had a positive impact for the education of society as a whole, in that it significantly increased literacy, in that the availability of books allowed for different classes of society, not just the elite, to better their education, “…the printing press increased literacy by making print available to the general public” (Arthur,2004). This availability reinforced the education of the middle class, which previously did not have access to books. Not only this, but higher quality books, mass production, and the decrease of book expenses, expanded the education of everyone (Arthur,2004). The invention of the printing press allowed for this education barrier to be broken between the elite and middle class, in that the availability of printed books, increased the literacy of society as a whole.
The printing press transformed the idea of who could be well read. Before the invention of the printing press, books were not available to the middle class, as they were very expensive, leaving only a small portion of society being educated, “prior to the printing press books were very expensive because it was such a laborious task to hand-scribe a book. This created a situation where only the elite were able to afford books and thus only a small percentage of the population knew how to read and write”(Arthur,2004). This technological change to printed form, significantly reshaped who could read, write, and publish, which used to be members of the clergy, however shifted to students (Brunning,2012,pg.295). Although, this technological impact rested upon people being able to read for themselves. For example, before people were able to read the bible themselves, they depended on “speech acts” given by the clergy, in which the Catholic Churchs’ authority rested on, for their understanding of faith and religion (Brunning,2012,pg.297). However, with the printing press, people were provided with, “…a new communication medium thus allowing political and religious views to be disseminated widely” (Arthur,2004). This act of distribution helped significantly in educating the population about important religious and political matters. Overall, the printing press had a major impact on education, whereby, “…the printed book was a new visual aid available to all students…the book was literally a teaching machine where the manuscript was a crude teaching tool only” (Arthur,2004). This revolutionary technology of its time, changed educational practices dramatically, in giving people, “…a new visual aid to learning” (Arthur,2004).
Digital tablet devices, such as the Apple Ipad, have had a positive impact in today’s society on education. As today’s society develops, more efficient technology, has been produced to cater for our technologically advanced world. The very concept of a book and how we access them has dramatically changed, in making them more readily available to suit our needs, “The notion that you can have the book instantly in front of you in a device and read it, is a really big change. I think that one of the things about books has always been that for a lot of people, there was an obstacle to be overcome. You had to go to the store. You had to ask for the book. And if the book wasn’t there, you had to wait for the book…no longer is that the case. You think you want to read it. If you have a device, you can be reading it within a minute…” (National Public Radio,2010). In today’s society, new forms of publishing have developed to cater to this idea of having access to information anytime and anyplace, “wireless technologies are revolutionising education, transforming the traditional ways of learning and teaching into ‘anytime’ and particularly, ‘anyplace’ education” (Barker,Krull,Mallinson,pg.1). Studies have shown the positive impact of tablet devices on education in increasing communication in the classroom, and supporting group project work in that information can be attained from internet access while working with your peers at the same time. The portability of the Ipad allows for learning to be extended outside of the classroom, for example on a school excursion, because of its convenient size it can be easily carried between classes with ease. The Ipad is a great device for collaboration, in that students can aggregate and distribute information easily, through various media platforms, such as email. These studies have also shown that students are more motivated using the Ipad for educational purposes, than they would be for traditional books. Students were recorded as being excited and more motivated in their learning and wanting to figure out how to use the device, making their education more interactive, “…learner participation increases and they appear “more engaged in the process” (Barker,Krull,Mallinson,pg.2).
Tablet devices, such as the Apple Ipad, alter the very concept of what a book is and how we experience new ways of reading. The Ipad allows for interactive learning, significantly enhancing education, through embedded pictures and videos, which cannot be done with traditional books. Tablet devices are also more environmentally friendly, in that teachers don’t have to worry about wasting paper, with paper handouts. Students and teachers nowadays prefer the digital format over the traditional textbook, because it’s more exciting, interactive and convenient having a portable device which holds many different purposes, further benefiting their education. The reliability of tablet devices in having a long battery life greatly benefits students and teachers, in having this constant access and availability of information within the classroom. Also, the Ipad starts up quickly which is important in class, so no learning time is wasted in the classroom. Tablet devices are cost efficient, especially with university students who can get a discount, as they are wanting to make the technology available to everyone to experience the educational value it provides. As we live in a technological and visually stimulated world, the integration of multimedia within the Ipad, such as pictures and videos, stimulates interactive learning. For example, high quality video footage of news reports, accessed through youtube, can be shared around the class for discussion. The ability of tablet devices to have social network connectivity is essential in education, in students being able to voice their opinions and create educational discussion, by connecting them with other students from around the world, through various media platforms, such as Youtube, Twitter, and Blogger.com (Gliksman,2011). Overall, digital tablet devices, such as the Apple Ipad, have had a significant positive impact on education in today’s society, by catering to students educational needs.
Both the printing press, and tablet devices, such as the Apple Ipad, can be compared and contrasted in terms of their impact on education in society. Both of these technologies can be compared in that they were both ahead of their time and revolutionary in terms of their advanced technology, having a positive impact on education. Both the printing press and the Apple Ipad had a similar positive impact in enhancing the reading experience for students. The printing press was very efficient, having consistent spelling and grammar in that; “…this consistency enhanced the overall reading experience” (Arthur,2004), which was essential in developing the necessary writing skills for students, as at that time, only a small percentage of the population, knew how to read and write, creating, “…a new visual aid to learning” (Arthur,2004). Digital tablet devices, like the Apple Ipad, alter the very concept of a book and how we experience new ways of reading and learning. Like the printing press, the Ipad, enhances the reader’s learning experience by creating a new visual experience, with the ability to add pictures and video, forming new ways of learning interactivity. This portable computing device allows for immediate access to internet as well as many different applications, which allow students to have this concept of ‘anytime, anyplace,’ “The notion that you can have the book instantly in front of you in a device and read it, is a really big change…” (National Public Radio,2010). This portability of tablet devices, is comparable to traditional books, which were considered as a portable, private instrument, making it convenient for student to carry between classes, however carrying too many books becomes an issue.
Both technologies are considerably cost efficient, in that the printing press made the process of making books easier, and so became affordable to the general public, greatly impacting education in society. Apple Ipads are considerably affordable for the advanced technological device it is, compared to many printed textbooks, having uni student discounts in making education more accessible to students. Both the printing press and the Apple Ipad allowed for the distribution of ideas to be shared. The invention of the printing press, provided people with, “…a new communication medium thus allowing political and religious views to be disseminated widely” (Arthur,2004). This act of distribution helped significantly in educating the population about important religious and political matters at the time. Tablet devices allow for social networking media platforms, allowing students to voice their opinions and create educational discussion, by connecting them with other students from around the world, through various platforms, such as Youtube and Blogger.com (Gliksman,2011). Although, the overall impact of both technologies on education was positive, they can contrasted. The difference in these technologies on their impact on education is through the ‘medium,’ in that the printing press published printed books, in which people had to go the store and buy, compared to tablet devices, which make it easier for students to download a book within minutes within the comfort of their home. Also, digital tablet devices further enhance our educational reading experience through the ability to add video, images, and interactive links, which was not possible with traditional books.
Therefore, as society develops, modes of publishing change to keep up with the evolving world around them. The printing press and digital tablet devices, such as the Apple Ipad, have had a revolutionary, positive impact on education. The invention of the printing press has significantly impacted the education of society, as only a small portion were well educated, however this idea of who could be well read changed with the invention of printed books, becoming accessible to the general public. Digital tablet devices, such as the Apple Ipad, have also had a positive impact on education, in that it alters the very concept of what a book is and how we experience reading, through its ability to add pictures and videos, creating a whole new level of interactive learning. Both these publication technologies are comparable in their positive impact on education and how we experience new ways of engaging with our learning. However, they can be contrasted through their print vs. digital format, in that we can gain more of an interactive, educational experience with video and images, that cannot be done with traditional books.
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List of References
-Arthur, Peter (2004) ‘Text Technologies: The Changing Spaces of Reading and Writing: The Impact of the Printing Press’ <http://educ.ubc.ca/courses/etec540/Sept04/arthurp/researchtopic/index.htm>
-Barker, Andrea, Krull, Greig, Mallinson, Brenda (2005) ‘A Proposed Theoretical Model for M-Learning Adoption in Developing Countries,’ Rhodes University, South Africa, <http://mlearning.noe-kaleidoscope.org/public/mlearn2005/www.mlearn.org.za/CD/papers/Barker.pdf>
-Brunning, Halina (2012) ‘Psychoanalytic Reflections on a Changing World,’ London,<http://books.google.com.au/books?id=WyTkC-amPgQC&pg=PT253&dq=impact+of+the+printing+press+on+education&hl=en&sa=X&ei=TabJT7OxNvGZiQexmsGuBg&ved=0CEgQ6AEwAw#>
-Febvre, Lucien, Martin, Henri-Jean (1997) ‘The Coming of the Book,’ Paris, <http://books.google.com.au/books?id=9opxcMjv4TUC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#>
-Gliksman, Sam (2011) ‘Assessing the Impact of Ipads on Education One Year Later,’ <http://ipadeducators.ning.com/profiles/blog/show?id=5840223%3ABlogPost%3A11112&commentId=5840223%3AComment%3A11008&xg_source=activity>
-National Public Radio (2010) ‘E-Book Boom Changes Book Selling And Publishing’, December 21, <http://www.npr.org/2010/12/21/132235154/e-book-boom-changes-book-selling-and-publishing>